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Standard 9 Science and Technology - 10. Information Communication Technology : The new direction of progress

Question 1:

Fill in the blanks to complete the statements. Justify the statements.

a. While working with a computer we can read the information stored in its memory and perform other actions in ............... memory.
b. While presenting pictures and videos about the works of scientists, we can use ..............
c. To draw graphs based on the quantitative information obtained in an experiment, one uses .....
d. The first generation computers used to shut down because of .......
e. A computer will not work unless .... is supplied to it.

Answer 1:

a. While working with a computer we can read the information stored in its memory and perform other actions in internal memory.
b. While presenting pictures and videos about the works of scientists, we can use microsoft powerpoint.
c. To draw graphs based on the quantitative information obtained in an experiment, one uses microsoft excel.
d. The first generation computers used to shut down because of use of large valves which consumed lot of electricity.
e. A computer will not work unless electric power is supplied to it.

Question 2:

Answer the following questions.
a. Explain the role and importance of information communication in science and technology.
b. Which application software in the computer system did you find useful while studying science, and how?
c. How does a computer work?
d. What precautions should be taken while using various types of software on the computer?
e. Which are the various devices used in information communication? How are they used in the context of science?

Answer 2:

a. The role and importance of information communication in science and technology are following:
  • It has enabled to predict and forecast weather conditions by studying meteors.
  • With the help of internet, one can collect scientific information and also share them with the help of emails or other social networking sites. It provides information on almost every topic.
  • Some experiments and concepts in science can be demonstrated effectively using simulations and animations. eg. functioning of nervous system.
  • A prototype of new research in the field of science can be build in various program softwares which run on a computer.
  • It has enabled scientists gather information related to happening in the space.
  • It has enabled the broadcasting of information related to agriculture to farmers living in remote areas to improve their agriculture productivity and sustainability.
b. Following are the application softwares which I find useful while learning science:
(i) Calculator: It helps in verifying the calculations done in subjects like physics and chemistry.
(ii) Microsoft excel: It is helpful in making me understand how to plot graphs between various physical quantities present in science.
(iii) Microsoft powerpoint: It enabled me to make interactive presentations for various topics present in science.

c. A computer has various parts. These parts along with their functions is described below:
  • Processing Unit/device (CPU)
  • Input device
  • Output device

It stands for Central Processing Unit. It is the heart and brain of the computer. It consists of various smaller components such as motherboard, hard disk, random access memory (RAM), etc.  CPU stores and processes the data. It controls the working of all the parts of computer, such as keyboard, mouse, etc. It is also known as the system unit.
CPU has three components: 
Storage unit: This unit stores the information and supplies it to other units when required. Random access memory (RAM) is a part of the storage unit.
Control unit: This unit controls the working of other parts of the computer. It does not perform any kind of data processing.
ALU (Arithmetic logic unit): This unit performs the arithmetic calculations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; and logical operations like comparison, selection and matching of data.                           

The internal memory of a computer is of two types:
- RAM (Random Access Memory): This allows data items to be read or write as long as the power is supplied to the system.
- ROM(Read Only Memory): This allows the data items to be read i.e. we cannot make changes to the stored information. 

The communication between the computer and the person is possible because of the presence of an operating system which is an interface for communication.

Input Devices
There are certain devices that help in providing the information to the computer. Such devices are known as input devices. Some input devices are keyboard, mouse, scanner, bar code reader, etc. A keyboard is used for entering information, while a mouse is a pointing device that is used for indicating and selecting the input.

Output Devices
Some devices help in displaying the result of the processed data, such devices are known as output devices. A monitor is the main output device that displays the result. Display of a monitor is made of pixels. These are the small dots on the screen. Most of the computer screens are capable of displaying 80 columns and 25 rows. Monitors displays the data in the form of numbers, alphabets, etc. Monitors are available in the markets in various sizes and quality. For example: Monochromatic (Black and white), Liquid crystal Display (LCD), etc.

d. The precautions to be taken while using various types of software on the computer are:
  • While using softwares, make sure that too many are not used simultaneously. Otherwise, it is going to slow your computer.
  • While working on excel, keep the data in tabular form. Also, enter the data sequentially. Even, avoid using unnecessary space and special characters.
In case of downloading a new software,
  • make sure that the site is authenticated from where it is being downloaded.
  • make sure that your computer has antivirus installed so as to protect it from any harmfull bugs.
  • try to give limited and required amount of access permission to the sofwares.
e. The various devices used in information communication are:
  • Mobile
  • Computer/ laptops
  • Radio
  • Television
These devices have enabled the dissemination of various information easily in scientific fields. Some examples where these devices are used are:
  • Weather analysis: Super computers help in analysing the weather conditions of a particular place and provide information about it.
  • Medicine: Computers help in performing surgeries. Analog computers are used to keep track of vital stats of the body like heartbeat, blood pressure, etc.
  • These devices have helped scientists gather information related to happening in the space.
  • These devices have enabled the broadcasting of information related to agriculture to farmers living in remote areas to improve their agriculture productivity and sustainability.

Question 3:

Using a spreadsheet, draw graphs between distance and time, using the information about the movements of Amar, Akbar and Anthony given in the table on page 4 , in the lesson on Laws of Motion. What precautions will you take while drawing the graph?

Answer 3:

Precautions to be followed while drawing the graph:
  • Keep the data in tabular form.
  • Data should be entered sequentially.
  • Avoid using unnecessary space and special characters.

Question 4:

Explain the differences between the different generations of computers. How did science contribute to these developments?

Answer 4:

Generations of computer technology refers to the changes made in the computer technology over the time. Earlier, computer used to be a big machine with a lot of heavy wiring, whereas nowadays, a computer can be carried in hands. Initially, the changes made were limited to those made in hardware technology. However, now it includes both hardware and software developments. The table given below shows the five generations of computers:
First1946-1959Vacuum tube based
Examples: UNIVAC and ENIAC
Second1959-1965Transistor based
These are not in use.
Third1965-1971Integrated circuit based
These are not in use.
Fourth1971-1980VLSI microprocessor based
Example:  micro computers or personal computers include desktop, laptop, palmtop, supercomputer, etc.
Fifth1980 to till dateUnder process
Example:  Robot and artificial intelligence

With the evolution of technologies in the realm of science, we have been able to make such huge developments in the field of computers.
  • With the discovery of semiconductors, transistors were made in 1947 at bell laboratories. These enabled the scientist to replace the large sized vacuum tubes in computers with small sized transistors.
  • In 1961, the integration of thousands of transistors on a single chip was made possible. Thus, the IC based computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive.
  • The technology of integrated circuits (ICs) improved rapidly. The LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuit and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuit was designed. It led to the invention of microprocessor based computers.
  • Scientists are working hard on the 5th generation computers. It is based on the technique of Artificial Intelligence (AI). These computers can understand spoken words & imitate human reasoning.

Question 5:

What devices will you use to share with others the knowledge that you have?

Answer 5:

The devices that can be used to share with others the knowledge that we have are:
  • Television
  • Radio
  • Mobile phone
  • Computer/laptop

Question 6:

Using information communication technology, prepare powerpoint presentations on at least three topics in your textbook.
Make a flowchart of the steps you used while making these presentations.

Answer 6:

Note: This is an activity based question. Kindly make three presentations of any three topics on your own.

The steps to be followed while preparing a presentation are:
  • Double click on the icon of Microsoft Excel file to open it. 
  • Select the New option in the File tab, and then select the Blank slide option.
  • In the Design tab, choose one of the designs available for the slide to make it attractive.
  • Type the information you want to write on the slide. Pictures can be inserted by choosing the Insert Pictures option in the Insert Tab.
  • To add more slide,
    (i) Click on the New Slide option in the Home tab, or​
     (ii) Place the cursor on the current slide and click Enter.

Question 7:

Which technical difficulties did you face while using the computer? What did you do to overcome them?

Answer 7:

Technical difficulties faced while using the computer and ways to overcome them are:
  • Computer being too slow: If your computer hangs in between, or boots up in more than a couple of minutes, then be assured that there is some problem in its working. To overcome this problem, either check the hard drive or see whether too many processes are running in the background. If the hard drive is full, try to empty it by deleting the not so important files or storing them in another hard drive.
  • Constant disconnection from Wi-Fi: These problems can occur due to several reasons (router, computer, ISP). If the Wi-Fi signal is weak, it can cause disconnections and slowness, so make sure the device is in the range and is getting decent reception. Also, check that the computer’s wireless adapter has up-to-date drivers. If none of this works, call ISP and see if they can help.
  • Constant "security warnings" while Browsing: This problem is easy to fix. Check that the computer’s clock shows the correct time and date. If it doesn’t, right-click on the clock and select “Change date and time settings” to correct it manually.​
  • The computer keeps restarting: It may arise due to series of Windows Updates which require several reboots sometimes. If the restart process mentions “Updating Windows”, then have patience and let the windows be updated. It may also arise due to some mechanical problem. Due to this problem, the computer might become noisy or unusually hot. To solve this problem, one might need to clean the dust that accumulated inside the computer. Computer clean-up guide should be followed to do so. If the problem persists after cleaning the computer, run a virus scan and a malware scan. If all these methods fail to sort the problem, consider taking the computer to a specialist.
Standard 9 Science and Technology - 10. Information Communication Technology : The new direction of progress Standard 9 Science and Technology - 10. Information Communication Technology : The new direction of progress Reviewed by Amol Uge on January 15, 2019 Rating: 5
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