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Standard 9 Science and Technology - 6. Classification of plants

Question 1:

Match the proper terms from columns A and C with the description in column B.
   'A'  'B'                 'C'
   Thallophyta  Seeds are formed in fruits Fern
   Bryophyta  No natural covering on seeds Cycas
   Pteridophyta  These plants mainly grow in water Tamarind
   Gymnosperms  These plants need water for reproduction  Moss
   Angiosperms  Tissues are present for conduction of water and food  Algae

Answer 1:

  'B'   'C'
 These plants mainly grow in water  Algae
 These plants need water for reproduction
 Tissues are present for conduction of water and food
   No natural covering on seeds  Cycas
   Seeds are formed in fruits  Tamarind

Question 2:

Complete the sentences by filling in the blanks and explain those statements.
(angiosperms, gymnosperms, spore, bryophyta, thallophyta, zygote)

a. .................... plants have soft and fibre-like body.
b. .................... is called the ‘amphibian’ of the plant kingdom.
c. In pteridophytes, asexual reproduction occurs by .................... formation and sexual reproduction occurs by ....................formation.
d. Male and female flowers of ....................are borne on different sporophylls of the same plant.

Answer 2:

a. Thallophyta plants have soft and fibre-like body.
b. Bryophyte is called the ‘amphibian’ of the plant kingdom.
c. In pteridophytes, asexual reproduction occurs by spore formation and sexual reproduction occurs by zygote formation.
d. Male and female flowers of gymnosperms are borne on different sporophylls of the same plant.

Question 3:

Answer the following questions in your own words.

a. Write the characteristics of subkingdom Phanerogamae.
b.  Distinguish between monocots and dicots.
c.  Write a paragraph in your own words about the ornamental plants called ferns.
d. Sketch, label and describe the Spirogyra.
e. Write the characteristics of the plants belonging to division Bryophyta.


Answer 3:

a. The word ‘Phanerogamae’ comprises the words ‘phaneros’ meaning ‘visible’ and ‘gamos’ implying ‘reproduction’. They show characteristics like-
  • well-differentiated and visible reproductive tissues that ultimately make seeds.
  • seeds consists of the embryo along with stored food which helps in the initial growth of the embryo during germination
Phanerogams are further subdivided into gymnosperms and angiosperms on the basis of seeds which are enclosed in a fruit or not. Gymnosperms produce seeds which are not enclosed by fruit and hence are called naked seeds whereas angiosperms produce seeds which are enclosed in fruits.


The embryo in a monocot seed has one cotyledon.

The embryo in a dicot seed has two cotyledons.

The sepals or petals are in multiples of three.

The sepals or petals are in multiples of four or five.

The stem vascular bundles are scattered.

The stem vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.

The leaves have parallel venation.

The leaves have reticulate venation.

They have fibrous or adventitious roots.

They have a tap-root system.

c. Ferns belong to the division pteridophyta. The plant body of a pteridophyte is differentiated into root, stem and leaves. They are found in cool, damp and shady places and have specialized tissues for the conduction of water and food. Ferns are economically important plants as they are used for ornamental purposes. Some of the ornamental ferns are the sword fern- Nephrolepis, the holly fern - Cyrtomium, the leatherleaf fern - Rumohra

d. Spirogyra is a type of green algae which belongs to the division Thallophyta. It does not have specific parts like leaves, stems etc. It contains chlorophyll and is thus autotrophic in nature. It contains spiral chloroplasts and thin unbranched chains of cylindrical cells. 

e. The characteristics of bryophytes are- 
  • They are the first plants to live on land, but require moist conditions to survive. For this reason they are called ‘the amphibians of plant kingdom’.
  • They are non-vascular, i.e., they do not have specialized vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) for the conduction of water and food.
  • They lack true roots, stem and leaves. But, they show more body differentiation than thallophytes.
  • They have rhizoids instead of true roots.
  • They do not bear flowers and seeds.
  • They reproduce both sexually as well as asexually.
  • Bryophytes exhibits 'alternation of generations' in which gametophytic phase (haploid) alternates with sporophytic phase (diploid).
  • Examples of bryophytes: Riccia, Marchantia, Funaria

Question 4:

Sketch and label the figures of the following plants and explain them into brief.

Marchantia, Funaria, Fern, Spirogyra.

Answer 4:

 a. Marchantia


b. Funaria

c. Fern

d. Spirogyra


Question 5:

Collect a monocot and dicot plant available in your area. Observe the plants carefully and describe them in scientific language.

Answer 5:

It is an activity based question. Kindly do it yourself.

Question 6:

Which criteria are used for the classification of plants? Explain with reasons.

Answer 6:

Plants are divided on the basis of various characteristics like:
  • Differentiation of plant body into roots, stem and leaves
  • Vascular tissues
  • Production of seeds
  • Covering of seeds
  • Number of cotyledons in a seed
The following chart explains the classification of plants:

Standard 9 Science and Technology - 6. Classification of plants Standard 9 Science and Technology - 6. Classification of plants Reviewed by Amol Uge on January 15, 2019 Rating: 5
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