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Std 6 th Science- 4. Disaster Management

Question 1:

What are the emergency contact numbers of the following?
(a) Police Control Room
(b) Fire brigade
(c) Ambulance
(d) National level single emergency number for disaster relief.

Answer 1:

(a) 100 should be dialled for Police control room.
(b) 101 should be dialled for Fire brigade.
(c) 102 should be dialled for Ambulance.
(d) 108 should be dialled for National level single emergency number for disaster relief.

Question 2:

What first aid will you provide in the following situations?
(a) Dog bite
(b) Scratches/ bleeding
(c) Burns/scalds
(d) Snakebite
(e) Sunstroke

Answer 2:

(a) Following first aid should be provided for dog bite:
  • A dog bite wound must be very thoroughly cleaned, first with soapy water and then with an antiseptic.
  • If this is not done, the bite might lead to rabies.
  • Cover the wound with a bandage.
  • See a doctor immediately.
(b) Following first aid should be provided for scratches/bleeding:
  • Clean the wound with cotton soaked in antiseptic lotion.
  • Apply bandage (in case of a smaller wound) or antiseptic lotion and wrap with a bandage (in case of a bigger wound).
  • In case of heavy bleeding, tie a handkerchief above the wound to stop bleeding.
​(c) Following first aid should be provided for burns/scalds:
Minor Burns:
  • Pour plenty of cold water immediately over it.
  • Apply an anti-burn ointment.
  • Immediate home remedies:
    •  Apply baking soda mixed with water
    • Apply the paste of turmeric and milk
    • Apply the paste of raw potato
Severe Burns:
  • In case clothes of a person catch fire, cover the person with a blanket and make the person roll over the ground in order to put out the fire.
  • Make the person lie down in an open space.
  • Remove the burnt clothes that are not sticking to the body.
  • Give him plenty of water to drink.
  • Apply anti-burn ointment on the burn.
​(d) Following first aid should be provided for snakebite:
  • Keep the person calm and restrict any movement.
  • Do not make him eat or drink anything.
  • Tightly tie a handkerchief above the bite to prevent the poison from spreading and reaching the heart or the nervous system.
  • Seek medical attention immediately.
​(e) Following first aid should be provided for sunstroke:
  • Make the person sit in the shade or a cool place.
  • Cover the body with cool damp sheets.
  • Make the person drink plenty of water or liquids.
  • Apply cooling measures like ice towels.

Question 3:

Write the causes of the following :
(a) Floods
(b) Forest fires
(c) Land slides/building collapse
(d) Storms
(e) Earthquakes

Answer 3:

(a) Following can be the cause of floods in a region:
  • It may occur due to heavy rainfall that leads to overflow of water from the water bodies.
  • Sudden melting of huge amount of ice at mountain tops can lead to flood in the regions nearby to mountains.
  • Cloudburst can lead to flood.
​(b) Following can be the cause of forest fires:
  • Natural calamities like lightning strikes falling on the trees of a forest.
  • Man made activities like smoking, setting thermal factories or campfires near the forest area, etc.
(c) Landslide/building collapse can occur due to following reasons:
  • Earthquake can cause landslide and building collapse.
  • Volcanic eruption can cause landslide.
  • Usage of poor quality material for construction of building can lead to its collapse.
  • Mining and weathering can cause landslides.
(d) Storms can occur either naturally or due to ecological imbalance occuring due to various human activities.
(e)  Earthquakes can occur due to following reasons:
  • Volcanic eruption
  • Meteors falling on the Earth’s surface
  • Underground explosions. For example, underground nuclear tests.
  • Collapsing structures such as mines etc.
  • ​Mining and construction of big dams.

Question 4:

Answer the following questions.
(a) What is meant by ‘disasters’?
(b) What are the types of disasters?
(c) What is meant by ‘disaster management’?
(d) Which are the main components of disaster management?

Answer 4:

(a) A sudden happening that causes enormous damage to life, property and social aspects of a nation or society is called a disaster.

(b) Disasters are of two types:
Man-made disasters: These disasters are the result of technological or human hazards. Examples of man-made disasters are road accidents, forest fires, collapsing of building due to usage of poor quality materials, etc.
Natural disasters: There are due to imbalance occurring in nature various environmental factors. Examples of natural disasters are earthquakes, volcanic eruption, etc.

(c) Disaster management is the strategy and course of action to be executed at the time of any disaster to save as much life as possible. 

(d) Main components of disaster management are:
Preparation: A plan is created to minimise the damage if a disaster occurs.
Redemption: It is the plan to minimise the damage to the society and country.
Preparedness: A plan is chalked out to get quick response from public and administration.
Impact of disaster: Intensity of disaster and disaster management are reviewed.
Response: This stage deals with providing immediate response after an incident has occurred.
Resurgence: It is an important link between emergency measures and national progress. It includes the steps which are required for the welfare and rehabilitation of the nation. 
Restoration: It is an important link between measures after disaster and national development. It includes steps useful for progress of
nation and rehabilitation.

Question 5:

Find out about the work of a ‘Sarpa-mitra’.

Answer 5:

Sarpamitra (friend of snake) protects and safeguards snakes. They also demonstrate to people the various aspects of snakes and snake bites, what precautions and first-aid should be given in case of snake bite and the general idea of how to classify the snakes into poisonous and non-poisonous.

Question 6:

Find out what a first aid kit/box contains.

Answer 6:

First aid box should contain the following things:
  • First-aid manual
  • Sterile gauze pads of different sizes
  • Adhesive tape
  • Adhesive bandages in several sizes
  • Elastic bandage
  • A splint
  • Antiseptic wipes
  • Soap
  • Antibiotic ointment
  • Antiseptic solution (like hydrogen peroxide)
  • Hydrocortisone cream (1%)
  • Extra prescription medications
  • Tweezers
  • Sharp scissors
  • Safety pins
  • Disposable instant cold packs
  • Calamine lotion
  • Alcohol wipes or ethyl alcohol
  • Thermometer
  • Tooth preservation kit
  • Plastic non-latex gloves (at least 2 pairs)
  • Flashlight and extra batteries
  • A blanket
  • Mouthpiece for administering CPR (can be obtained from your local Red Cross)
  • List of emergency phone numbers

Question 7:

Suggest remedial measures for dealing with natural or man-made disasters.
Fire Earthquake 
Building collapse Deluge 
Road accident Storm 
Flood Tsunami 
War Drought 
Bomb explosion Landslide 

Answer 7:

FireCall fire brigade, use fire extinguisherEarthquakeGive help to clear debris, call ambulance to send victims to hospitals
Building collapseGive help to clear debris, call ambulance to send victims to hospitalsDelugeDonate food and clothing for flood victims, stay at some height if possible
Road accidentCall ambulance, give immediate first-aid and emotional supportStormProvide shelter and help in clearing the debris
FloodDonate food and clothing for flood victims, stay at some height if possibleTsunamiMove to a safer place, donate food and clothing for victims
WarGive shelter to innocent victims, provide food and clothing and first-aid to the victimsDroughtDonate food and water for victims, provide shelter and monetary help 
Bomb explosionCall ambulance, take the victims to a safer place and provide basic first-aidLandslideHelp in rehabilitation services
Std 6 th Science- 4. Disaster Management Std 6 th Science- 4. Disaster Management Reviewed by Amol Uge on January 08, 2019 Rating: 5
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